• Recently, Zika Virus Disease (ZVD) was reported for the first time in Kerala.


  • Zika virus is similar to dengue fever,chikungunya, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Carried by infected Aedes aegypti mosquitos, Zika is largely transmitted through bites, but can also occur through intrauterine infection.
  • If a woman is bitten by an infected mosquito and becomes infected, Zika can cross into the placenta and affect the fetus.
  • While anyone can contract Zika, pregnant women are the most at risk due to the potential for fetal microcephaly and other neurologic abnormalities.
  • Sexual transmission of this virus can occur. Transmission has been reported from infected men and women to their sexual partners.
  • Signs and symptoms of the Zika virus most commonly include:
    • Mild fever
    • Rash
    • Joint pain, particularly in the hands or feet
    • Red eyes (conjunctivitis)
  • Other signs and symptoms may include:
    • Muscle pain
    • Headache
    • Eye pain
    • Fatigue or a general feeling of discomfort
    • Abdominal pain


  • Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti.
  • Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. These may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash.
  • A vaccine for dengue fever has been approved and is commercially available in a number of countries.
  • The vaccine is only recommended in individuals who have been previously infected, or in populations with a high rate of prior infection by age nine.


  • Chikungunya is an infection caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
  • The virus is spread between people by two types of mosquitos: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti.
  • They mainly bite during the day.
  • It is believed most people become immune after a single infection.
  • Symptoms include fever and joint pains.These typically occur two to twelve days after exposure. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and a rash. Symptoms usually improve within a week; however, occasionally the joint pain may last for months or years.

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