• India’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) supercomputer Param Siddhi ranked 63rd among top 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
  • Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
  • A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another.
  • The components interact with one another in order to achieve a common goal.
  • In a non-distributed (or co-located) system, all the parts of the system are in the same physical location. In a distributed system, parts of the system exist in separate locations.



  • Param Siddhi is a High Performance Computing-Artificial Intelligence (HPC-AI) supercomputer developed by Department of Science and Technology (DST) under National Supercomputing Mission (NSM) at Centre for Development of Advanced Computing.
  • The supercomputer has Rpeak of 5.267 Petaflops and 4.6 Petaflops Rmax.
  • In high-performance computing, Rmax and Rpeak are scores used to rank supercomputers based on their performance using the LINPACK Benchmark.
  • The LINPACK Benchmarks are a measure of a system’s floating point computing power.
  • A system’s Rmax score describes its maximal achieved performance, the Rpeak score describes its theoretical peak performance. Values for both scores are usually represented in tera-FLOPS or peta-FLOPS.
  • A petaflop is the ability of a computer to do one quadrillion floating point operations per second (FLOPS). Additionally, a petaflop can be measured as one thousand teraflops.


National Supercomputing Mission

  • The Mission envisages empowering our national academic and Research and Development (R&D) institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising more than 70 high-performance computing facilities.
  • Launched in 2015, this seven-year mission was allocated Rs 4,500-crore.
  • These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the National Knowledge Network (NKN).
  • The NKN is another programme of the government which connects academic institutions and R&D labs over a high speed network.
  • Academic and R&D institutions as well as key user departments/ministries would participate by using these facilities and develop applications of national relevance.
  • The Mission also includes development of highly professional High Performance Computing (HPC) aware human resource for meeting challenges of development of these applications.
  • The Mission is implemented and steered jointly by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY).
  • The (C-DAC) has recently launched the second phase of this project wherein more institutions will be supported by supercomputing facilities.



  • Recently, the fifth Scorpene class submarine of Project-75 named ‘Vagir’ has been launched at Mazagon Dock in Mumbai.



  • The first Vagir, a submarine from Russia, was commissioned into Indian Navy on 3rd December 1973 and was decommissioned on 7th June 2001 after almost three decades of service to the nation.
  • Public shipbuilder Mazagon Dock Ltd (MDL) gave a new incarnation to the submarine with the same name.
  • It is named after the Sand Fish, a deadly deep sea predator of the Indian Ocean.
  • It is a part of the six Kalvari-class submarines being built in India.
  • The state-of-art technology used in the submarine has ensured:
  • Superior stealth features such as advanced acoustic absorption techniques, low radiated noise levels, and hydro-dynamically optimised shape.
  • The ability to attack the enemy using precision guided weapons.
  • The submarine is designed to operate in all theatres of operation, showcasing interoperability with other components of a Naval Task Force.
  • It can launch attacks with both torpedoes and tube launched anti-ship missiles, whilst underwater or on surface.
  • It can undertake multifarious types of missions i.e Anti-Surface warfare, Anti-Submarine warfare, Intelligence gathering, Mine Laying, Area Surveillance, etc.



  • It is a programme by the Indian Navy that entails building six Scorpene Class attack submarines.
  • Scorpene is a conventional powered submarine weighing 1,500 tonnes and can go up to depths of 300m.
  • It is given support by the Department of Defence Production (Ministry of Defence) and Indian Navy throughout its various phases of construction.
  • The MDL is manufacturing six Scorpene submarines with technology assistance from Naval Group of France under a USD 3.75 bn deal signed in October 2005.


  • Two submarines, Kalvari and Khanderi, have been commissioned into the Indian Navy.
  • The third submarine, Karanj, is in the last phase of rigorous sea trials.
  • The fourth Scorpene, Vela, has commenced its sea trials.
  • The sixth and last submarine, Vagsheer, is being readied for boot together.


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