GLOBAL METHANE ASSESSMENT: BENEFITS AND COSTS OF MITIGATING METHANE EMISSIONS REPORT RELEASED

GLOBAL METHANE ASSESSMENT: BENEFITS AND COSTS OF MITIGATING METHANE EMISSIONS REPORT
RELEASED

CONTEXT
 Report is released by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

FINDINGS
 Anthropogenic emissions represent roughly 60 per cent of the total methane emissions.
 Anthropogenic methane emissions come primarily from three sectors: fossil fuels, ~35 per cent; agriculture, ~40
per cent; and waste, ~20 per cent.
 Emissions from livestock are the largest source of agricultural emissions with enteric fermentation the
dominant process and cattle the dominant animal causing the emissions.
 The extraction, processing and distribution of the three main fossil fuels lead to comparable emissions: gas and
oil each contribute ~34 per cent, followed by coal which contributes ~32 per cent of the fossil fuel methane
emissions.

METHANE EMISSIONS MITIGATION AS PER REPORT
 FOSSIL FUEL SECTOR (OIL, GAS, AND COAL) UPSC PRLIMS 2014
With reference to ‘Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities, in those zones except agriculture.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

ABOUT METHANE
 It is a short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) and a potent greenhouse gas ten of times more powerful than carbon dioxide.
 It is responsible for 30% of global warming since the pre- industrial level.
 lt contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone, a dangerous air pollutant.
o Upstream and downstream leak detection and repair.
o Recovery and utilization of vented gas – capture of associated gas from oil wells
o Coal mine methane management: pre-mining degasification and recovery and oxidation of ventilation air methane; flooding abandoned coal mines.
o Renewables for power generation -use incentives to foster expanded use of wind, solar, and hydro power for electricity generation
o Improved energy efficiency and energy demand management

 WASTE SECTOR
o Solid waste management –
 Residential – source separation with recycling/reuse;
 No landfill of organic waste;
 Treatment with energy recovery or collection and flaring of landfill gas;
 Industrial – recycling or treatment with energy recovery
o Wastewater treatment
 Residential – upgrade to secondary/tertiary anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery and utilization
 Industrial upgrade to two-stage treatment, i.e., anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery followed by aerobic treatment.
o Reduced consumer waste and improved waste separation and recycling, improved sustainable consumption.
 AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
o Livestock manure management
 Treatment in biogas digesters
 Decreased manure storage time
 Improve manure storage covering
 Improve housing systems and bedding
 Manure acidification
o Agricultural crop residues
 Prevent burning of agricultural crop residues.
o Reduced food waste and loss – strengthen and expand food cold chains; consumer education campaigns; facilitate donation of unsold or excess food.

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