• Weather bureau of Australia declared on November 23, 2021 that; a La Nina weather phenomenon had developed in Pacific Ocean for the second consecutive year.


  • Development of this phenomenon will bring above average rainfall across central, north and east Australia.
  • This event could boost wheat yields in Australia.
  • In September 2021, India had increased its wheat forecast for this season by 17 per cent to near record levels because of favourable weather.
  • This year, climatic models suggest, La Nina pattern will be short-lived, and will be effective until late southern hemisphere summer or early autumn 2022.

What is La Nina?

  • La Nina is an oceanic and atmospheric phenomenon, which is a colder counterpart of El Nino.
  • It is a part of broader El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern. Name of La Nina originates from Spanish for ‘the girl’.
  • Phenomenon of La Nina is usually associated with more tropical cyclones, greater rainfall, and cooler than average temperatures in equatorial Pacific Ocean. The events typically last about a year.

What happens during La Nina?

  • During La Nina period, sea surface temperature across eastern equatorial part of central Pacific Ocean becomes lower than normal by 3–5 °C.

Impact of La Nina

  • La Nina has an extensive effect on weather worldwide, especially in North America.
  • It also impacts the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane seasons, in which number of tropical cyclones increases in Atlantic basin because of low wind shear and warmer sea surface temperatures.
  • It also reduces tropical cyclogenesis in Pacific Ocean.

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