• An asset reconstruction company is a special type of financial institution that buys the debtors of the bank at a mutually agreed value and attempts to recover the debts or associated securities by itself.
  • The asset reconstruction companies or ARCs are registered under the RBI and regulated under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Securities Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act, 2002).
  • The ARCs take over a portion of the debts of the bank that qualify to be recognised as Non-Performing Assets. Thus ARCs are engaged in the business of asset reconstruction or securitisation or both.
  • All the rights that were held by the lender (the bank) in respect of the debt would be transferred to the ARC. The required funds to purchase such such debts can be raised from Qualified Buyers.
    • Qualified Buyers – Qualified Buyers include Financial Institutions, Insurance companies, Banks, State Financial Corporations, State Industrial Development Corporations, trustee or ARCs registered under SARFAESI and Asset Management Companies registered under SEBI that invest on behalf of mutual funds, pension funds, FIIs, etc. The Qualified Buyers (QBs) are the only persons from whom the ARC can raise funds.

Working of the ARC

  • The working of the ARC can be summarized by the following diagram:

Process of Asset Reconstruction by ABC

  • The main intention of acquiring debts / NPAs is to ultimately realise the debts owed by them. However, the process is not a simple one. The ARCs have the following options in this regard:
    • Change or takeover of the management of the business of the borrower.
    • Sale or lease of such business.
    • Rescheduling the payment of debts – offering alternative schemes, arrangements for the payment of the same.
    • Enforcing the security interest offered in accordance with the law.
    • Taking possession of the assets offered as security.
    • Converting a portion of the debt into shares.

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